Workshop 2018
Xiaoming Wang - Atmospheric sounding with ground-based, satellite-based and balloon-based GNSS for climate and meteorology study - October 29, 2018 • 582 Views
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), in addition to its applications for positioning, timing, and navigation, is another established atmospheric observing system used to remotely sense the water vapor and temperature in the atmosphere. The satellite-based GNSS remote sensing (Radio Occultation, RO) can provide a globally distributed vertical profiles of refractivity, temperature, and water vapor by analyzing the atmospheric refraction of the GNSS signal from GNSS satellites to low earth orbit (LOW) satellites. While the ground-based GNSS remote sensing is to derive the precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the delay of the radio waves caused by the atmosphere when transmitting from GNSS satellites to receivers at the earth. The radio occultation technique has been applied for investigating planetary (e.g. Venus) atmospheres and ionospheres since the 1960s by studying the radio waves transmitted from a spacecraft to a receiver. Although the application of the RO technique to the remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere was also suggested in the 1960s, it only became practical in 1990s with the development of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the launch of a LEO satellite i.e. GPS/MET. Since then, the remote sensing of the water vapor and temperature in the Earth’s atmosphere with GNSS RO becomes an important technique for weather nowcasting and plays an important role in the atmospheric study. The study of the remote sensing of PWV with ground-based GNSS was also proposed in the 1990s with the establishment of the GNSS systems. Nowadays, both the spaceborne and ground-based GNSS techniques have been widely adopted as an atmospheric remote sensing system due to its all-weather and 24-hour availability, high spatial-temporal resolution, and relatively low cost. GNSS remote sensing has been used not only for weather forecast but also for climate studies thanks to the availability of the 30-year globally historical data. With the development of long-duration balloon, balloon-based GNSS RObecomes a practical and promising technique in the remote sensing of the atmosphere for a specific region. We recently initiated a 5-year project supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences to investigate the atmosphere structure and properties in the mid- latitude region and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with balloon-based, ground-based, and satellite-based GNSS remote sensing techniques. Therefore, we believe it is a fitting time to make an overview of the development of the ground-based and satellite-based GNSS remote sensing, and also give a brief introduction on the future research on the newly proposed long-duration balloon-based GNSS remote sensing study.

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